Again, the exercise comes first (with a few extras if you want the extra challenge or want to spend more time), followed by a discussion. Enjoy!

Ask the user for a number. Depending on whether the number is even or odd, print out an appropriate message to the user. *Hint: how does an even / odd number react differently when divided by 2?*

Extras:

- If the number is a multiple of 4, print out a different message.
- Ask the user for two numbers: one number to check (call it
`num`

) and one number to divide by (`check`

). If`check`

divides evenly into`num`

, tell that to the user. If not, print a different appropriate message.

Concepts for this week:

- Modular arithmetic (the modulus operator)
- Conditionals (if statements)
- Checking equality

We have been doing arithmetic (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division) since elementary school, and often it is useful for us to find not the answer to a division problem but the remainder when we do a division operation. This operation is called the “modulus operation.” For example, when I divide 5 by 3, the remainder is 2, and the sentence reads like this: “5 modulo 3 is 2.”

In the Python shell:

The `%`

sign is exactly the modulus operator.

When a computer (or a program) needs to decide something, it checks whether some condition is satisfied, which is where the term **conditional** comes from. Conditionals are a fancy way of saying “if statements”. If Michele was born in New York, she has an American passport. That statement is a conditional (if statement) that in this case is true. In Python this works the same way:

When the program gets to the `if`

statement, it will check the value of the variable called `age`

against all of the conditions, in order, and will print something to the screen accordingly. Note that `elif`

is a portmanteau of “else” and “if”. So if the variable `age`

holds the value 15, the statement `"can see a rated PG-13 movie"`

will be printed to the screen.

Note how the statement `elif age < 17 and age > 12`

has the statement `and`

- you can use `or`

and `not`

in the same way. Understanding a bit about logic and how it works, or being able to rationally think about logic will help you get the conditions right - oh, and a lot of practice.

Links about conditionals:

A fundamental thing you want to do with your program is check whether some number is equal to another. Say the user tells you how many questions they answered incorrectly on a practice exam, and depending on the number of correctly-answered questions, you can suggest a specific course of action. For integers, strings, floats, and many other variable types, this is done with a simple syntax: `==`

. To explicitly check inequality, use `!=`

.

Notice how in this example, the condition is redundant. In the first condition we are checking whether the variable `a`

has the value 3 and in the second, we are checking whether `a`

does NOT have the value 3. However, if the first condition is not true (`a`

is in fact not 3), then the second condition is by definition true. So a more efficient way to write the above conditional is like this:

The same equality / inequality comparisons work for strings.

Links about equality and comparators:

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